Unambiguously Ethiopian has been mentioned as one of the world most ancient place. In whatever geographical size fluctuation, all Ethiopian state lines bounded the source of the biblical Ghion (The Blue Nile) which is a living testimony that spots Ethiopia from genesis to here. Indeed this current African poor country Ethiopia archived the full span of human history which the modern science too is witnessing. Ethiopia is not only known as origin, but also in times of disasters and wars, in hosting backs its grand children who had gone left long ago out of Africa. The small mountainous Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was simply a melting pot where the entire world came together and formed the current living mosaic society. Most of us may know only the story of the first Islam follower who headed off Meca to Abyssinia (the land of Habesh) and got a safe niche. Before this event too, various people of different religion had already been living in this country. Judaism perhaps was the most ancient religion in Ethiopia even before the Israelis. Yes ‘Judaism’ might be connected to ‘Judah’ the fourth son of Israel (Jacob). The bible however clearly stated people who had been believing in God of the Heaven even before Abraham who was the father of all. Melchizedeck, the king of righteousness and the Eternal Priest has at least been mentioned as a non Israel origin. I am not saying Melchizedeck was Ethiopian as the likely geography where he met Abraham was away from Ethiopia. But just to indicate people who had been believing in Heavenly God before Israeli. The father-in-law of Moses a reportedly Ethiopian too was a priest. The father-in-law (in Egypt) of Josef (Son of Jacob) also was priest. The ancient Greek historian Diodorus of the Sicily mentioned Ethiopians as the first people who believed in Heavenly God. From these we understand that at least Judaism like religion likely had long been existed in Ethiopia and the region before Israelis. Ofcourse, it was not a surprise the Israilies continued to have connection with Ethiopia and they too escaped to Ethiopia at their time of war and natural disasters. The bête Israelies in Ethiopia are good still living evidences. Christianity landed to Ethiopia in just at the time of the apostils though it took a while until it became state religion in the 4th century. Trades and related communications of other people with Ethiopia have been the other historical admixing events to build up more diverse cultured, faith, and genetics background of Ethiopians in particular and the whole Habessha people today in general. That is exactly what the current modern science is witnessing and claiming Ethiopians are just the world harboring the entire genetic breadth of all human races. That is why we say Ethiopia is the land of the Habesha, the Melting Pot! Here is the link http://www.cell.com/ajhg/pdf/S0002-9297(12)00271-6.pdf
In this long history, none of the current Ethnic groups were mentioned. No Amhara, no Oromo, no Tigre, none of the current ethnics. Obviously, as part of the society these all had been in Ethiopia until they or others named them with the current names. The outcomes of the genetic analysis in the above link could not differentiate one from the other. Instead it puts all having same genetic background but harboring incredibly diverse genetic origin attesting the aforementioned historical admixture of people in Ethiopia. Inevitably, cultural, language, communication differences have been realities in Ethiopia as it does in any society. Conflicts can also be nearly inevitable events for various reasons. This has been solid fact almost in all nations. Most of the current nations in the world hosted a gravely devastative conflicts and brutal wars time and again their history. On the other hand, Ethiopia experienced relatively few historical wars within in such long history since ancient times. Instead, as mentioned above it had been a haven for people escaped from wars and various disasters. The ancient Ethiopian rulers seem to be wise and strict with law. That exactly was seen when Ethiopian Christian king hosted the aberrant religion followers (Islam) in those days. Unfortunately, Ethiopians wisdom and justice went down after power taken off from the Zagwes and then entirely turned into whole mess by local warlords who behaved just like ruthless and hooligans. This created vacuum for people to go apart until the essence of unification came to the mind of Tewodros who himself unfortunately attempted to realize his ambition by blood and iron. Yohanis V continued finally, the Great King Menilik realized with all his extra-ordinary talent.
How Emperor Menilik able to unify Ethiopia?
Being captive, Menilik was raised by Tewodros. Though Tewodros was said to have been such a nasty killer, he never killed those under his arrest. That had been a well established Ethiopian culture that survived even with those all the dark years of the warlords. After all, it appeared that Tewodros raised Menilik in good hands; even finally he gave his daughter to Menilik to be his wife. Menilik was a naturally brilliant and talented person. Tewodros already had realized Menilik would succeed. Although, Tewodros and Menilik share with each other the idea of unification of Ethiopia, they had completely different philosophy. Alike Tewodros, Menilik put war as last option. He also had great sympathy to human sufferings. That exactly was the reason why his people call him ‘Emiye Menilik’ which means ‘Mother Menilik’. They meant he was just like a mother who cares about her children. With his all talents and embracing all people around him, Menilik was ultimately successful in bringing together many of local land lords particularly the Oromos quite friendly. Indeed, Menilik seemingly was inclined in favor of the Oromos. Nearly all his generals and prominent decision makers were Oromos. The Shewa, Gobena was said to have been a friend of Menilik since their childhood. It was not a surprise if Gobena joined Menilik. Gobena certainly was a powerful person in Shewa who even had Challenged Tewodros and Nigus Teklehaymanot of the Gojam. But he did not hesitate to join Menilik. The Boreda Bekere of Wellega was the other partner who joined the Menilik group. Aba Jifar the the Jimma too joined Menilik. These all had understood the intension of Menilik. Menilik had no intension of invasion. His only intension was to bring the long time disintegrated Ethiopian administration into one. Local warlords in the North had no chance than to accept Menilik’s peaceful unification. All those who joined Menilik continued to stay in their power and rule their own people. Yet, Menilik set rule against those who abuse people. His anti slavery rule was the one commonly known. Aba Jifar of the Jimma who had been involved in slave trading was among others who were forced to abandon slave trading. In Menilik’s Empire everybody had the right to live as a human being. That was the great change that librated many who had been in the hands of brutal rulers. With such talent and humanly move Menilik was successful in bringing together most of Ethiopia in quite short period.
Menilik wars against local lords
Despite the fact that Menilik tried all his best to negotiate with the local lords peacefully, not all could be willing to join him. As a result wars with these local lords were inevitable. Menilik might face some more minor wars but three wars were solemnly. The war with Kao (King) Tona of the Welaita, the war with Emir Abdulai of Adere at Chelenko, and War with Arsi (Anonymous local warier). The war with Emir Abdulai of the Adere (Hareri) lasted only less than a day. The wars with Tona and Arsi took long time and accordingly damages were high. Both Tona and Arsi were finally defeated. Tona was capture a live after he had been wounded. Menilik treated him and Tona recovered. Finally, Menilik convinced Tona about his intention and returned him back to his power to continue to rule the Welaita people. It was not clear who led the Arsi war from the local side but Menilik was seriously heartbroken with the lost lives and announced an order against his fighters not to abuse the survivors after the war.
Adwa and Menilk
Soon after his successful unification of Ethiopia from the southern side, the Italian invaders were one of his next challenges. The invaders had already footed in current Eretria earlier. The entire nation he just built was heart fully and courageously responded to his call to fight against the infiltrating invaders. That might be something unbelievable a just united Ethiopians became more united in response to the alien aggressors. No one could stop that unity and it smashed the modernly quipped Italian war at Adawa. Adawa, was more than a victory in a battle. It rather was a game changer that alerted the long time thought of colonialists as if they were super natural and alerted all under colonialist’s repression. Adawa signaled the possibilities of centuries years old impossible! Yet, the Ethiopians under the leadership of Menilik would have succeeded to the invaders doc at Messawa. More sadly however, the wide range a ravaging famine in those days was major challenge. Menilik had to responsibly decide safe his people(fighters) who were with no remaining food in their hands. Many may think that Adawa was simply Ethiopians and the Italian invaders war. But the famine was also a natural disaster which was in favor of the invaders. Still there also were ‘Bandas’ serving the invaders. Adawa was realized in all these challenges.
Menilik and Modernizations
After Adawa, Menilik turned his eyes on modernization for lack which he remorse much his country and his people were suffering from numerous natural and artificial disasters. Menilik introduced all technologies on earth of that date to Ethiopia. Count all technologies and modern traditions surviving in so called current Ethiopia, all except internet and plane were his legacies. Internet and planes were not on earth. Plane was just a discovery in 1903. Menilik even was an extra ordinary person to break long time deep rooted ill tradition against technology. The priests from Ethiopian Orthodox church were among his confronters in his pace to prosper Ethiopia. Menilik did not live that longer to perform all these in a single person lifespan. His lived only 69 years and reined Ethiopia for only 17-18 years in his full leadership and may be then extra 6-7 years unwell. Menilik, apparently, might be one of the few extra ordinary persons in last millennium? I am not historian, one may list one or two. I hardly think more.
How Menilik could be that much successful
Luckily, Menilik was joined by many other brilliant, humanly, and determined people. The Meniliks rein primarily recruited leaders from Oromo people. Including his own wife Tayitu, others like Fitawurary Habtegeorgis Denegde were only to mention few the lead role players in Meniliks rein. All, including local administrators (rases and niguses) were actively participating and had strong bond with the Menilik central leadership despite the fact that the poor system of the date to coordinate. His, administration was a form federal system that the local leaders lead their community but they were monitored by the central administration to not let them abuse the people. Ethiopians in Ethiopia under the rule of Menilik indeed had true citizenship right. The poor had options to appeal to the emperor. ‘deha ayibedl’ was the moto in Menilik’s leadership. As stated above many societies were librated from rampant slavery of the time. That was little to mention the reason behind why people call the emperor ‘Emiye Menilik’. Menilike was not only joined by the brilliant elite leaders, but also by his entire people. That enabled him to fetch all those successful stories.
Why weyanes its allies targeted the famous world leader Menilik?
The weyanies and their allies obviously had to target Menilik who truly united all Ethiopians together. Otherwise, the weyanies would have not survived for few months let alone for 26 years here now. The strong bond that Menilik built up among Ethiopians and Ethiopianism has been a problem for those who want to infamously penetrate to Ethiopia. The weyanies, shabia groups had long before understood the only way they could get chance in Ethiopia was by spoiling the history of Menilik and deceiving others with false stories especially the Oromos who had a very strong tie with Menilik. Weyanies infiltrated into the Ethiopians by large and Oromos in particular with systemic poison that completely detached the current generation especially the Qube oromo generation from their heroic forefathers who were successfully led Ethiopia with Menilik. The waynes don’t want the Oromos to be quoted as a lead role player in the most successful Menilik rein. Obviously, if Oromos realized the successful history of Menilik indeed was the history of their fore fathers, let alone the weyane group that came from far north Dedebit, Tigray, no one would able to rule without the will of Oromos and the surrounding people in Addis which is the center of this community. It was not that serious but Hailesilasse too attempted to distance the Oromos from being aware of the real history of Menilik, which over 80% the oromos played the role and the reason why Menilik decided to hand over his throne to his Oromo grandson, Iyasu. Menilik had planned to hand over his power to the grandson of his friend Gobena which unfortunately was not successful for a reason. This strong evidence of the bond between the Oromos and Menilik has always been seen as a threat by Ethiopian rulers then after except the derg which reined all through out in mess but with good reputation of the Menilik history. The weyanes were successful in wiping out of Menilik’s true history from the minds of the Qube Oromo generation which is currently maneuvered in ridiculous way by the weyanes. Not only distracted the Menilik history which undeniably was the history of Oromos leadership, weyanes apparently able to let the Qube minds to think the history of Menilik as if it were history of their enemy. The weyane served the Qube Oromo minds with factious fake versions. Most current Qube generation read the weyane sponsored Tesfay Gebere Ab’s ‘Yeburkawe Zimita’; ‘Yejemila Enat’ and so on. The wayanes were ofcourse accompanied by ethnic Oromo elites who want to live for their own personal interest at the expense of the big Oromos. Let alone an Oromo and/or non who speak Afan Oromo, the Quebe generation can easily be idioticed and surrender to anybody who pretend to be Oromo and tell that Oromos have been repressed and your enemies are neftegna(Amhara). That is what the qube mind want to hear and have been made for. That exactly is a strategy to let Oromos believe that they have been powerless, unintelligent in history and to let them accept their incapability for power what so ever they outnumber. This is the mission of those campaigning against the outshining Oromo dominated Menilik leadership history. The truth, all the successes of Menilik were due to leadership performance of Oromo forefathers!
እግዚአብሔር ማስተዋሉን ይስጠን!
ልዑል እግዚአብሔር ኢትዮጵያንና ሕዝቦቿን ይጠብቅ